The Toolkit for Gender-Affirmation Healthcare

Search our collection of links, videos, and other resources for healthcare professionals and personnel to become more familiar with best practices in gender-affirming care.

HIV Prevention and Care Continuum for TGNC Patients

  • Baguso GN, Gay CL, Lee KA. Medication adherence among transgender women living with HIV. AIDS Care. 2016;28(8):976-981.
  • Braun HM, Candelario J, Hanlon CL, et al. Transgender Women Living with HIV Frequently Take Antiretroviral Therapy and/or Feminizing Hormone Therapy Differently Than Prescribed Due to Drug-Drug Interaction Concerns. LGBT Health. 2017;4(5):371-375.
  • Lemons A, Beer L, Finlayson T, McCree DH, Lentine D, Shouse RL. Characteristics of HIV-Positive Transgender Men Receiving Medical Care: United States, 2009-2014. Am J Public Health. 2018;108(1):128-130.
  • Mayer KH, Grinzstein B, El-Sadr WM. Transgender People and HIV Prevention: What We Know and What We Need to Know, a Call to Action. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016;72(S207-S209).
  • Neumann MS, Finlayson TJ, Pitts NL, Keatley J. Comprehensive HIV Prevention for Transgender Persons. Am J Public Health. 2017;107(2):207-212.
  • Radix A, Sevelius J, Deutsch MB. Transgender women, hormonal therapy and HIV treatment: a comprehensive review of the literature and recommendations for best practices. J Int AIDS Soc. 2016;19(3 Suppl 2):20810.
  • Reisner SL, Jadwin-Cakmak L, White Hughto JM, et al. Characterizing the HIV Prevention and Care Continua in a Sample of Transgender Youth in the U.S. AIDS Behav. 2017;21(12):3312-3327.
  • Reisner SL RA, Deutsch MB. Integrated and Gender-Affirming Transgender Clinical Care and Research. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016;72(3):S235-S242.
  • Richardson S, Seekaew P, Koblin B, et al. Barriers and facilitators of HIV vaccine and prevention study participation among Young Black MSM and transwomen in New York City. PloS One. 2017;12(7):e0181702.
  • Sevelius JM, Patouhas E, Keatley JG, Johnson MO. Barriers and facilitators to engagement and retention in care among transgender women living with human immunodeficiency virus. Ann Behav Med. 2014;47(1):5-16.
  • Sevelius JM, Saberi P, Johnson MO. Correlates of antiretroviral adherence and viral load among transgender women living with HIV. AIDS Care. 2014;26(8):976-982.

PrEP in TGNC patients

  • Deutsch MB, Glidden DV, Sevelius J, et al. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in transgender women: A subgroup analysis of the iPrEx trial. The Lancet HIV. 2015;2(12):e512-e519.
  • Eaton LA, Kalichman SC, Price D, Finneran S, Allen A, Maksut J. Stigma and Conspiracy Beliefs Related to Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Interest in Using PrEP Among Black and White Men and Transgender Women Who Have Sex with Men. AIDS Behav. 2017;21(5):1236-1246.
  • Fisher CB, Fried AL, Desmond M, Macapagal K, Mustanski B. Facilitators and Barriers to Participation in PrEP HIV Prevention Trials Involving Transgender Male and Female Adolescents and Emerging Adults. AIDS Educ Prev. 2017;29(3):205-217.
  • Grant RM, Sevelius JM, Guanira JV, et al. Transgender Women in Clinical Trials of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016;72 Suppl 3:S226-229.
  • Koechlin FM, Fonner VA, Dalglish SL, et al. Values and Preferences on the Use of Oral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention Among Multiple Populations: A Systematic Review of the Literature. AIDS Behav. 2017;21(5):1325-1335.
  • Sevelius JM, Deutsch MB, Grant R. The future of PrEP among transgender women: the critical role of gender affirmation in research and clinical practices. J Int AIDS Soc. 2016;19(7)Suppl 6:21105.
  • Wood SM, Lee S, Barg FK, Castillo M, Dowshen N. Young Transgender Women's Attitudes Toward HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis. J Adolesc Health. 2017;60(5):549-555.
Biological Sex
Primary and secondary birth characteristics, anatomy, chromosomes-used interchangeably with gender, although there are important differences
Socially ascribed roles and attributes based on the sex that is assigned at birth
Gender Affirmation
Process of affirming gender identity via a variable combination of personal, medical, and legal steps
Gender-affirming treatment
Medical, surgical, or other intervention designed to better align gender expression, social perception, and/or physical appearance with gender identity
Gender confirmation surgery
Surgical interventions as part of transition
Gender dysphoria
Distress that persons might experience when gender identity does not correspond with assigned sex
Gender expression
Ways of communicating gender identity to others through pronouns, clothing, behavior, voice, and bodily movement
Gender identity
Psychological quality-self-perception as male, female, or both
Gender nonconforming (GNC)
Person whose gender identity is not fixed to assigned sex-may use term gender-queer, non-binary, or identify on a gender spectrum or with their own definition of gender
Person whose gender identity falls outside binary gender categories
Assumption that all persons are heterosexual
Transgender or GNC person who does not identify as male or female
Sexual orientation
Person's pattern of sexual attraction, behavior, and/or identity
Umbrella term for persons whose gender identity differs from characteristics typically associated with the sex assigned at birth
Transgender man
Person assigned female at birth who identifies as man/masculine
Transgender woman
Person assigned male at birth who identifies with a female/feminine gender
Altering one's birth sex over time via a combination of personal, medical, and legal steps

Sources: GLADD. GLADD Media Reference Guide. 2016; Fenway Health. Glossary of Gender and Transgender Terms. 2010; National LGBT Health Education Center. A Program of the Fenway Institute. Glossary of LGBT Terms for Health Care Teams; Deutsch MB (ed). Guidelines for the Primary and Gender-Affirming Care of Transgender and Gender Nonbinary People. 2nd edition. 2016.

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